Article to be found in No Cancer Foundation research archive N°8
We are all taught that the Red Army surrounded Berlin and that, faced with capture by the Soviet Union, Adolf Hitler and his new wife Eva Braun (Hitler) committed suicide in the Führerbunker. Don’t believe it – Josef Stalin knew better as did most of the world leaders of the time – Stalin even made a great fuss about Hitler’s escape in statements he made in July of 1945 – more than two months after the alleged suicide.As you read through this book taken from the file of a Spanish spy who worked for the Reich and who saw Hitler and Eva Braun forcibly drugged and removed from the Führerbunker under orders of Martin Bormann, you will realize that Hitler’s suicide was a well conceived escape plan by the man who desperately had to keep the Reich, and thereby Hitler, alive…..Martin Bormann. This book also contains photos of places Hitler lived in Argentina, interviews with people there and in Europe – FBI and OSS files clearly stating that they and the United States Government knew that Hitler did not die in Berlin. Read more
A good place to start to give a little bit of balance……
Máxima Zorreguieta was born in Argentina on 17 May 1971. She grew up in Buenos Aires as the daughter of Jorge Zorreguieta and Maria del Carmen Cerrutti. Since her wedding with Crown Prince Willem-Alexander, her official title is Máxima Princess of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau, Mrs van Amsberg. On 30 April 2013, when her husband Prince Willem-Alexander accedes to the throne, Princess Máxima’s official title will be Queen Máxima. Unlike Prince Claus and Prince Bernhard, the spouses of Queen Beatrix and Juliana, who did not acquire the title ‘King’. However, Queen Máxima’s rights and responsibilities will not differ from those of her successors.
The families zur Lippe Biesterfeld and von Amsberg were always heavily involved in the Nazi’s. The same goes for the Zorreguieta’s in Argentina where Hitler stayed until his death in 1962. The Dirty War (in Spanish: La Guerra Sucia) was a program of violent repression of rebels and dissidents conducted between 1976 and 1983 by the military government in Argentina. Between 10,000 to 30,000 Argentineans were killed or “disappeared”. Many thousands more were tortured. In 1980 the Argentine military helped Nazi war criminal Klaus Barbie and major drug lords mount the bloody Cocaine Coup in neighboring Bolivia. Because of the anti-communistic point of view, when Reagan came to power in 1981 he quickly reversed former president Carter’s condemnation of the regime on record on human rights and authorized CIA collaboration with the Argentine intelligence service for training and arming the Nicaraguan contras. (listen here)
The Dutch B.Ph. Baron Harinxma thoe Slooten who became the first Ambassador in Brussels, worked before and after World War II closely together with the Belgian Minister Paul-Henri Spaak and helped leading Nazis flee in association with the London Committee of the Netherland Red Cross Society founded by Princess Juliana and used by her husband Nazi Prince Bernhard zur Lippe-Biesterfeld. This happened along with the Dutch Minister of Foreign Affairs Mr. C.G.W.H. Baron Boetzelaer Oosterhout (party less) in the cabinet Beel (CSF). Baron B.Ph. Baron Harinxma thoe Slooten worked from March 1943 until September 1945 in the “London Committee of the Netherland Red Cross Society”. A foundation that was established on September 16, 1940 by Princess Juliana and the Dutch Minister of War Otto Cornelis Adriaan van Lidth de Jeude (photo) who after the liberation get profound powers, to continue the Nazi government along the territory of the Netherlands. The London Committee can be effective in enemy occupied territory because of the German occupation on the Netherlands and therefor the powers are wider than normal activities of the Red Cross. Including evacuation of refugees residing in Great Britain, France, Spain and Portugal to more permanent, residences in other countries. In 1943 the Dutch Office Military Government is established by the same Minister of War OCA of the Lidth Jeude with the aim to take preparatory measures for the execution of military authority in the Netherlands after the capitulation of Germany.
From August 1, 1945 was Frans Houben secretary of the Dutch Red Cross department Hague and Supervisory Board of the royal air company KLM (source: Europe Now). With the knowledge described above it was for Frans Houben (KVP Catholics) in close coordination with Jan Donner (ARP Reformed) possible using passports of the International Red Cross Geneva to help Nazi leaders flee to Argentina from Zurich with Dutch KLM aircrafts, or with ships from the Italian port cities of Genoa and Rome.
These passports were recognized by Argentina as official documents. Adolf Eichmann, here photo middle person with hat on board the ss Giovanni C towards Argentina, obtained his passport on 1 June 1950 under the assumed name of Riccardo Klement, born in Bolzano. On 17 June 1950 he was already on the boat to Argentina. The men beside him were men of the Organisation of ehemaligen SS Angehörigen – ODESSA (translation:“Organization of former SS members”) Here you see the application and the passport of Adolf Eichmann, alias Riccardo Klement, including the stamps of the Red Cross. The trip was mostly by boat from the Italian port cities of Genoa and Rome, but also by plane from Zurich. With the Dutch KLM! According to a 752 pages FBI report, dated 21 September 1945, ten days after the fall of Berlin, Hitler arrived with a German U-boat (video) in the south of Argentina (video) (see doc). However, a search that time yielded nothing. Probably Hitler had already traveled to Tunja (Colombia) where he stayed until 1955 according to CIA documents (1/2/3/4/5/6) including a testimony of Philip Citroen, the former Waffen-SS who worked in South America for the KNSM, In 1954 (same period as the establishment of the Bilderberg Conferences video) he had once a month contact with Adolf Hitler who lived then under the name “Adolf Schüttelmayor in Tunja (Colombia). Philip Citroen told in September 1955 in confidence about his meeting with Hitler to an American friend, who work for the CIA and managed to get some photos. In the CIA file on Hitler, the full report is available on Citroens encounters. Including photos of him and Hitler, alias Adolf Schüttelmayor. According to witness Hitler died in age in Argentina(photo), “Accidental?” The current Queen of the silently by Nazi hijacked Netherlands Máxima Zorreguieta, comes from Argentina where her father had a role in the Argentinian military dictatorship.
1. The Perόn connection
° Argentina’s Disappearing Odessa Files. In many ways the best article/review of Uki Goñi’s, The Real Odessa “The Real Odessa”, key recent book on the Nazi’s & Argentina. This lengthy article by Max Paul Friedman, Department of History, Florida State University, details clearly the process of Perón’s involvement with the Nazi’s. He makes interesting parallels with the use of Germans by the USA, USSR and France after 1945 to question why Perón’s support for the Germans is criticised outside Argentina when the others is not.
° Perón and the Nazi’s by Mark Falcoff from Time Magazine. How the European fascist sensibility found new roots and new life in the South Atlantic region.
° Perón y los nazis: una fraternal relación 2007 interview with Uki Goñi, Argentine author of Odessa. Concise but useful as this part focuses on the how close Perón was to national socialism. From Deutsche Welle.
° La rama nazi de Perón (Perón’s Nazi branch) Article from Argentina’a la nacion newspaper decribing the close links between nazi escape groups and the Perón government.
° Axis Ties with Argentina. Foreign Policy Reports Contemporary report from February 1, 1946 by the US Foreign Policy Association. Indicates the concern in the US of Axis involvement in Argentina.
° The Straight Dope: What’s the true story on South American Nazis Laid back presentation, but a good, balanced summary of research as it stood in 2004.
° Evita, the Swiss and the Nazis Nazi-hunter John Loftus has charged that the First Lady of the Republic and His Holiness discussed the care and feeding of the Nazi faithful in Argentina.
° First lady Eva Peron ‘allowed Nazis to hide out in Argentina 2011 review article showing how Evita Peron allowed Nazis to hide out in Argentina in exchange for treasures looted from rich Jewish families. Daily Mail Review is of ‘The Politically Incorrect Guide to Latin America,’by Leandro Narloch and Duda Teixeira. See also: Did Argentina Trade Visas for Holocaust Loot? from Uruguay’s Mercopress.
° Evita, Swiss & the Nazis By Georg Hodel Based, in part, on a Swiss German-language documentary directed by Frank Garbely and entitled “Evitas Geheimnis – Die Schweizer Reise”, this looks at Eva Perons visit to Switzerland and its secret links with the nazi escape line to Argentina.
° New Look at Argentine-Nazi ties In “The German Connection: The Laundering of Nazi Money in Argentina,” Gaby Weber, a German journalist, argues that the Perón dictatorship sponsored an operation to move illicitly obtained wealth to Argentina and then back to Germany. For nearly a decade, her book asserts, German-made cars, trucks, buses and even the machinery for entire factories flowed into Argentina, paid for with dollars that were then used to help finance the “German economic miracle.” New York Times
° Hitler’s Shadow Useful 2010 111 page long official US National Archives report on Nazi War Criminals, U.S.Intelligence, and the Cold War.Focus is not on Argentina but puts Peron Nazi links in global context. Use the search facility (12 references to argentina) Richard Breitman and Norman J.W. Goda
and links to revisionist pieces arguing the Perón-Nazi connection was less than believed:
° The Peróns: Argentina’s Populist Power Couple ” Were the Peróns really so bad? Or have they merely been smeared because the populist Perón was not unfriendly to the Third Reich?” 2002 Analysis by Robert K. Logan in The Barnes Review using the findings of CEANA, the official Argentine “Commission of Inquiry into the Activities of Nazism in Argentina”.
° The Politics of Espionage: Nazi Diplomats and Spies in Argentina, 1933-1945 Long and overly detailed but pages 396-9 give good details on how sympathetic Peron actually was (not as much as usually believed) to National Socialism. 2009 dissertation by RL McGaha, Univ of Ohio.
° The Jews and Perón: Communal Politics and National Identity in Peronist Argentina, 1946-1955 Detailed online book by LD Bell argues that despite claims Perón was anti-Semitic and in sympathy with European fascism, he in fact demonstrated a considerable amount of pragmatism in his dealings with Argentina’s 250,000 strong Jewish population and attempted to integrate a number of traditionally excluded groups, including Jews, into Argentina’s socially and politically inclusive national vision.
2. Escape to Argentina
° Ratlines Not normally keen to suggest Wikipedia, this is a good overview to familiarise you with names, places and events in the smuggling out of nazis to south America and the role of key participants like the Vatican.
° Secret files reveal 9,000 Nazi war criminals fled to South America Brief 2011 item on numbers reaching South America following newly opened German files showing as many as 5,000 Nazis went to Argentina, between 1,500 and 2,000 to Brazil and up to 1,000 in Chile. Allan Hall, Daily Mail.
° Granta: The Real Odessa Article by Uki Goni on the Nazi flight to Argentina. Based on his book of same name.
° Odessa Clear description of the origins and development of the escape route. From the Jewish Virtual Library.
° The Great Escape. Sunday Times article by John Crossland looks at the exodus to south America shown in Uki Goni’s Real Odessa book.
° Nazi Smuggling Ring Is Back in Spotlight Peron’s intelligence agency helped bring Adolf Eichmann and other war criminals into Argentina, documents reveal History News Network, LA Times article by Hector Tobar.
° Hunting for Nazi submarines in Argentina. 2000 article from the Norwegian Institute of Technology which was involved in looking (200Km off the coast of Buenos Aires) for the wrecks of seven submarines said to have transported about 350 German Nazi officers to Argentina after World War II. By Nina E. Tveter.
° Remarks before the Nazi War Criminals Interagency Working Group (Simon Wiesenthal Center, Los Angeles, 1999) Mark Weitzman illustrates connections between the Vatican, CIA and South America in providing an exit “rat-run” fro nazi’s.
° Como entró un nazi belga How the Belgian war criminal Jean-Jules Lecompe was officially accepted into Argentina in 1947, despite arriving with false papers. From the Argentine Página/12 but Google translates easily.
° KLM accused of helping Nazis flee BBC item (2007) on suspicions that the Dutch airline KLM helped Nazi war criminals escape to Argentina after World War II
° The Cape of Last Hope: The Postwar Flight of Nazi War Criminals through South Tyrol/Italy to South America Interesting detailed research piece by G Steinacher, Univ of Nebraska-Lincoln (2007). Can be slow to load.
° How Many Nazi War Criminals Escaped? List compiled by Uki Goñiin writing La auténtica Odessa in 2008
° Tied up in the Rat Lines by Yossi Melman which looks at the Vatican involvement in the escape ratlines.
° Why did the pope help Nazis escape? Michael Phayer looks at the role of Pius XII in assisting Nazi’s to escape Europe.
° The World War II Pope and Nazi Genocide By Paul Siegel reviewing (in depth) John Cornwell’s, “Hitler’s Pope: The Secret History of Pius XII.
° Red Cross and Vatican helped thousands of Nazis to escape 2011 Guardian article on how research shows travel documents ended up in hands of the likes of Adolf Eichmann, Josef Mengele and Klaus Barbie in the postwar chaos.
° CIA’s Support to the Nazi War Criminal Investigations Kevin C. Ruffner, CIA History staff gives an analysis (originally on the CIA’s own web) of the research into US/CIA support at the end of the war for nazi criminal escapes.
° Documents show post-war CIA covered up Nazi war crimes Haaretz item reveals how CIA kept quiet over Eichmann’s location for fear he would damage espionage effort. 2006
° C.I.A. Knew Where Eichmann Was Hiding, Documents Show 2006 NY Times article on files that reveal CIA links to Eichmann in Argentina. For more on the actual documents: Uncovering the Architect of the Holocaust: The CIA Names File on Adolf Eichmann Detailed 2005 documentary US National Security page on the extensive ties between Eichmann and men who served as CIA agents. (See also the section below on Eichmann)
The recent revision of the organised ratline/ODESSA escape theory is presented here:
° The Flight from Justice Historian Gerald Steinacher on How Nazis Fled Europe after World War II Important and useful History News Network Interview (2011) with Dr. Gerald Steinacher who debunks the myth of a secret ODESSA organization that assisted fleeing Nazis. He then traces their actual escape methods and routes, especially through Italy, and investigates the involvement in particular of the International Committee of the Red Cross, the Vatican and the U.S. intelligence agencies. Overburdened institutions enabling flight rater than a structure like ODESSA. Reads well!
° (You can read the introduction to his book here which gives his key arguments)
° Wish you were here: the Church, the Red Cross and the Nazis’ great escape Clear and well set out article based on a review of Steinachers book from the Irish Times.
3. The Nazi’s in Argentina
° The Activities of Nazism in Argentina Statement by Ignacio Klich, Academic Coordinator of the 1997 Commission of Enquiry into the Activities of Nazism in Argentina.
° The “Nazi” Menace in Argentina,1931-1947 learned and, despite the title, it is in Spanish!
° Why the Nazis felt at home Nicholas Lezard of the The Guardian anatomises the links Goñi draws between Nazi Germany and Argentina in The Real Odessa.
° Argentina y los nazis by Daniel Frescó. Useful article from Radio Netherlands. Googles clearly into English.
° Argentine documentary sheds light on mystery of Nazi gold By Hernan di Bello Article on the film “Oro nazi en Argentina” (Nazi Gold in Argentina), which will compete in several international film festivals before appearing in cinemas This is the first documentary to look at the subject “from a Latin American point of view.
° Nazi Gold Stories From Argentina Tabloid & sensationalist, but intriguing…
° Fugitive Nazi cult leader arrested Paul Schäfer, an 84-year-old German, originally escaped to Chile, but was arrested in Buenos Aires, March 2005 (see also this BBC report: Secrets of ex-Nazi’s Chilean fiefdom)
° Nazi Past Haunts Fallen Argentine Hotel Intriguing piece on Argentina’s Eden Hotel where hundreds of nazi’s flocked to after the war, drawn by the open-door policy of General Juan Domingo Peron. CBS
Hitler’s refugee scientists who worked for Perόn
° The Pulqui story. Brief history of the industrial project that for so many proved the economic “signature” policy of Peron: the attempt to build a domestic jet industry (using exiled German engineers). Heavily subsidised, it eventually failed in tandem with Peron. The wikipedia page is also very informative with many images
° Naranjeros, Gauchos and Indians By Hernán Longoni. This detailed article describes the development of an Argentine Flying Wing and other (German engineer led) aviation projects after 1945. Unfortunately, the site is now no longer. This is the Wayback version, recovered except for images.
° Argentina: Why so much theater? Gary Weber article looking at the role of the US (echoes of North Korea policy: US would provide uranium for “peaceful purposes if Argentina closed down its – German led – nuclear programme) in ending of the contracts with German engineers after the fall of Peron in 1955. Also shows the covert US involvement in the 1960 siezure of Eichmann.
° Adolf Eichmann Information on the Nazi war criminal and his life from the Nizkor Project.
° Eichmann: From Capture to Trial. Part of a complete pack on info re Eichmann by US Public Service TV. Well presented
Eichmann Series of Items from Germany’s Spiegel: On the Trail of Holocaust Organizer Adolf Eichmann by Klaus Wiegrefe A Nazi War Criminal’s Life in Argentina by Klaus Wiegrefe.
° The Capture of Adolf Eichmann Detailed account from the Jewish Virtual Library.
° The blind refugee’s secret By Yossi Melman. Review of a 2003 book casts a shadow on the Mossad’s success in the capture of Adolf Eichmann, favouring the individual who the author feels deserves the credit for exposing the Nazi criminal. From Ha’aretz
° How Nazi war criminal Josef Mengele cheated justice for 34 years Chicago Tribune Magazine, 1986. Excellent, detailed piece, excerpted from “Mengele: The Complete Story” by Gerald L. Posner and John Ware.
° Dr. Josef Mengele, ruthless Nazi concentration camp doctor Outline of Mengele’s stay in latin America from Crimelibrary.com.
° Looking for Nazi Doctor Josef Mengele 2011 released documents reveal that in the 1950s, several former Nazis war criminals worked for Germany’s new foreign intelligence agency and assisted in the hunt for other ex-Nazis, including the notorious death camp doctor Josef Mengele. Spiegel magazine item.
° Wie aus Josef Mengele “Helmut Gregor” wurde Article about how Mengele “became” Helmut Gregor. From the German Stern magazine.
° Erich Priebke account of nazi past and time in Bariloche, Argentina from Jewish Virtual library.
4. Contemporary Argentina’s Response
° Argentina confronts Nazi haven by Uki Goni in Buenos Aires for Guardian Unlimited.
° Granta interview with Uki Goñi, February 2003 on publication of The Real Odessa, Uki Goñi’s investigation into the complicated network that delivered Nazi war criminals to Argentina.
° Argentina probes cover-up NPR (radio report but has transcipt on the page) Argentina’s president orders an investigation into whether government employees secretly destroyed files on Nazi war criminals who fled to the country after World War II. NPR’s Martin Kaste reports.
° Argentina’s Disappearing Odessa Files H Net review by max Friedman developed review of the Uki Goni Real Odessa book.
° A Culture of Impunity Article in English from the Argentine newspaper Página/12 about Argentina’s presidential Secretary of Culture, Torcuato Di Tella, who defended two Croatian war criminals, in a letter sent to US Representative Maurice Hinchey.
° Argentina asked again for files article from Philadelphia Inquirer.
° Archivo Odessa Article on the research being done by the Argentine government into 7,250 nazi Croatians admitted to postwar Argentina, among them some of the worst assassins of Europe. From the Argentine Página/12 but google translates easily.
° Ukinet Uki Goñi, an Argentine journalist who grew up in the US and Argentina is currently the key researcher into the Nazi link with Argentina. His work appears in print in Peron y los Alemanes and most recently in The Real Odessa. Ukinet is his website. It also links to other articles on the topic – in French and Italian too – (including the theme of how accessible Argentine files on the subject are). These links are constantly updated and have been the source of many of the links on this page. Unfortunately the links to this key site change frequently.